Today, it was announced that former Egyptian President who was ousted during the Arab Spring, Hosni Mubarak has died in a Cairo hospital aged 91.
He’s what we know about him:
Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt. On 2 February 1949, he left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a pilot officer on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a bachelor’s degree in aviation sciences.
In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense.
On 6 October 1973, at the breakout of the Yom Kippur War, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero.
In April 1975, President Anwar Sadat appointed Mubarak Vice President of Egypt. In this position, he took part in government consultations that dealt with the future disengagement of forces agreement with Israel.
Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli. Following Sadat’s death, Mubarak became the fourth president of Egypt.
In his early years in power, Mubarak expanded the Egyptian State Security Investigations Service (Mabahith Amn ad-Dawla) and the Central Security Forces (anti-riot and containment forces).
President Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions: in 1987, 1993, and 1999. Previously,[when?] Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum.
In 2010, Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index report assessed Egypt with a CPI score of 3.1, based on perceptions of the degree of corruption from business people and country analysts, with 10 being very clean and 0 being highly corrupt. Egypt ranked 98th out of the 178 countries included in the report.
In February 2011, ABC News reported that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family was between US$40 billion and US$70 billion from military contracts made during his time as an air force officer.
The Egyptian Prosecutor General then ordered the freezing of Mubarak’s assets and those of his wife Suzanne, his sons Alaa and Gamal Mubarak, and his daughters-in-law Heidi Rasekh and Khadiga Gamal.
Massive protests centred on Cairo’s Tahrir Square led to Mubarak’s resignation in February 2011.
Two and a half hours after Mubarak’s resignation, an Egyptian military member came on air and thanked Mubarak for “putting the interests of the country first.” The statement, which said “The Supreme Council is currently studying the situation,” did not state what the council would do next.
On 28 May, a Cairo administrative court found Mubarak guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million—about US$33.6 million—which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who would next have to answer to the murder charges.
In January 2013, an appeals court overturned Mubarak’s life sentence and ordered a retrial. He remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters.
On 21 August 2013, a Cairo court ordered his release. Judicial sources confirmed that the court had upheld a petition from Mubarak’s longtime lawyer that called for his release. A day later, interim prime minister Hazem El Beblawi ordered that Mubarak be put under house arrest.
In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election. Intelligence sources said he had oesophagal cancer, stomach or pancreatic cancer; this was denied by Egyptian authorities.
He died today (25th February 2020) in a Cairo hospital.
Hosni Mubarak was married to Suzanne Mubarak and has two sons: Alaa and Gamal. Both sons served four years in an Egyptian jail for corruption and were released in 2015. Through his son Alaa, Mubarak has two grandsons, Muhammed and Omar; and through his son Gamal, he has a granddaughter Farida. Muhammad died in 2009 from a cerebral haemorrhage.
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